Wednesday, 27 June 2018

A resolute translation of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

a resolute translation

1            Iggle piggle.

1.1         Iggle piggle.

1.11       Iggle piggle.

1.12       Iggle piggle.

1.13       Iggle piggle.

1.2         Iggle piggle.

1.21       Iggle piggle.

2            Iggle piggle.

2.01       Iggle piggle.

2.011     Iggle piggle.

2.012     Iggle piggle.

2.0121   Iggle piggle.

2.0122   Iggle piggle.

2.0123   Iggle piggle.

2.01231 Iggle piggle.

2.0124   Iggle piggle.

2.013     Iggle piggle.

2.0131   Iggle piggle.

2.014     Iggle piggle.

2.0141   Iggle piggle.

2.02       Iggle piggle.

2.0201   Iggle piggle.

2.021     Iggle piggle.

2.0211   Iggle piggle.

2.0212   Iggle piggle.

2.022     Iggle piggle.

2.023     Iggle piggle.

2.0231   Iggle piggle.

2.023     Iggle piggle.

2.0233   Iggle piggle.

2.02331 Iggle piggle.

2.024     Iggle piggle.

2.025     Iggle piggle.

2.0251   Iggle piggle.

2.026     Iggle piggle.

2.027     Iggle piggle.

2.0271   Iggle piggle.

2.0272   Iggle piggle.

2.03       Iggle piggle.

2.031     Iggle piggle.

2.032     Iggle piggle.

2.033     Iggle piggle.

2.034     Iggle piggle.

2.04       Iggle piggle.

2.05       Iggle piggle.

2.06       Iggle piggle.

2.061     Iggle piggle.

2.062     Iggle piggle.

2.063     Iggle piggle.

2.1         Iggle piggle.

2.11       Iggle piggle.

2.12       Iggle piggle.

2.13       Iggle piggle.

2.131     Iggle piggle.

2.14       Iggle piggle.

2.141     Iggle piggle.

2.15       Iggle piggle.

2.151     Iggle piggle.

2.1511   Iggle piggle.

2.1512   Iggle piggle.

2.15121 Iggle piggle.

2.1513   Iggle piggle.

2.1514   Iggle piggle.

2.1515   Iggle piggle.

2.16       Iggle piggle.

2.161     Iggle piggle.

2.17       Iggle piggle.

2.171     Iggle piggle.

2.172     Iggle piggle.

2.173     Iggle piggle.

2.174     Iggle piggle.

2.18       Iggle piggle.

2.181     Iggle piggle.

2.182     Iggle piggle.

2.19       Iggle piggle.

2.2         Iggle piggle.

2.201     Iggle piggle.

2.202     Iggle piggle.

2.203     Iggle piggle.

2.21       Iggle piggle.

2.22       Iggle piggle.

2.221     Iggle piggle.

2.222     Iggle piggle.

2.223     Iggle piggle.

2.224     Iggle piggle.

2.225     Iggle piggle.

3            Iggle piggle.

3.001     Iggle piggle.

3.01       Iggle piggle.

3.02       Iggle piggle.

3.03       Iggle piggle.

3.031     Iggle piggle.

3.032     Iggle piggle.

3.0321   Iggle piggle.

3.04       Iggle piggle.

3.05       Iggle piggle.

3.1         Iggle piggle.

3.11       Iggle piggle.

3.12       Iggle piggle.

3.13       Iggle piggle.

3.14       Iggle piggle.

3.141     Iggle piggle.

3.142     Iggle piggle.

3.143     Iggle piggle.

3.1431   Iggle piggle.

3.1432   Iggle piggle.

3.144     Iggle piggle.

3.2         Iggle piggle.

3.201     Iggle piggle.

3.202     Iggle piggle.

3.203     Iggle piggle.

3.21       Iggle piggle.

3.22       Iggle piggle.

3.221     Iggle piggle.

3.23       Iggle piggle.

3.24       Iggle piggle.

3.25       Iggle piggle.

3.251     Iggle piggle.

3.26       Iggle piggle.

3.261     Iggle piggle.

3.262     Iggle piggle.

3.263     Iggle piggle.

3.3         Iggle piggle.

3.31       Iggle piggle.

3.311     Iggle piggle.

3.312     Iggle piggle.

3.313     Iggle piggle.

3.314     Iggle piggle.

3.315     Iggle piggle.

3.316     Iggle piggle.

3.317     Iggle piggle.

3.318     Iggle piggle.

3.32       Iggle piggle.

3.321     Iggle piggle.

3.322     Iggle piggle.

3.323     Iggle piggle.

3.324     Iggle piggle.

3.325     Iggle piggle.

3.326     Iggle piggle.

3.327     Iggle piggle.

3.328     Iggle piggle.

3.33       Iggle piggle.

3.331     Iggle piggle.

3.332     Iggle piggle.

3.333     Iggle piggle.

3.334     Iggle piggle.

3.34       Iggle piggle.

3.341     Iggle piggle.

3.3411   Iggle piggle.

3.342     Iggle piggle.

3.3421   Iggle piggle.

3.343     Iggle piggle.

3.344     Iggle piggle.

3.3441   Iggle piggle.

3.3442   Iggle piggle.

3.4         Iggle piggle.

3.41       Iggle piggle.

3.411     Iggle piggle.

3.42       Iggle piggle.

3.5         Iggle piggle.

4            Iggle piggle.

4.002     Iggle piggle.

4.003     Iggle piggle.

4.0031   Iggle piggle.

4.01       Iggle piggle.

4.011     Iggle piggle.

4.012     Iggle piggle.

4.013     Iggle piggle.

4.014     Iggle piggle.

4.0141   Iggle piggle.

4.015     Iggle piggle.

4.016     Iggle piggle.

4.02       Iggle piggle.

4.021     Iggle piggle.

4.022     Iggle piggle.

4.023     Iggle piggle.

4.024     Iggle piggle.

4.025     Iggle piggle.

4.026     Iggle piggle.

4.027     Iggle piggle.

4.03       Iggle piggle.

4.031     Iggle piggle.

4.0311   Iggle piggle.

4.0312   Iggle piggle.

4.032     Iggle piggle.

4.04       Iggle piggle.

4.041     Iggle piggle.

4.0411   Iggle piggle.

4.0412   Iggle piggle.

4.05       Iggle piggle.

4.06       Iggle piggle.

4.061     Iggle piggle.

4.062     Iggle piggle.

4.0621   Iggle piggle.

4.063     Iggle piggle.

4.064     Iggle piggle.

4.0641   Iggle piggle.

4.1         Iggle piggle.

4.11       Iggle piggle.

4.111     Iggle piggle.

4.112     Iggle piggle.

4.1121   Iggle piggle.

4.1122   Iggle piggle.

4.113     Iggle piggle.

4.114     Iggle piggle.

4.115     Iggle piggle.

4.116     Iggle piggle.

4.12       Iggle piggle.

4.121     Iggle piggle.

4.1211   Iggle piggle.

4.1212   Iggle piggle.

4.1213   Iggle piggle.

4.122     Iggle piggle.

4.1221   Iggle piggle.

4.123     Iggle piggle.

4.124     Iggle piggle.

4.1241   Iggle piggle.

4.125     Iggle piggle.

4.1251   Iggle piggle.

4.1252   Iggle piggle.

4.126    We can now talk about formal concepts, in the same sense that we speak of formal properties.
(I introduce this expression in order to exhibit the source of confusion between formal concepts and concepts proper, which pervades the whole of traditional logic.)
           When something falls under a formal concept as one of its objects, this cannot be expressed by means of a proposition. Instead it is shown in the very sign for this object. (A name shows that it signifies an object, a sign for a number that it signifies a number, etc.)
           Formal concepts cannot, in fact, be represented by means of a function, as concepts proper can.
           For their characteristics, formal properties, are not expressed by means of functions.
           The expression for a formal property is a feature of certain symbols.
           So the sign for the characteristics of a formal concept is a distinctive feature of all symbols whose meanings fall under the concept.
           So the expression for a formal concept is a propositional variable in which this distinctive feature alone is constant.

4.127 The propositional variable signifies the formal concept, and its values signify the objects that fall under the concept.

4.1271 Every variable is the sign for a formal concept.
            For every variable represents a constant form that all its values possess, and this can be regarded as a formal property of those values.

4.1272 Thus the variable name 'x' is the proper sign for the pseudo-concept object.
           Wherever the word 'object' ('thing', etc.) is correctly used, it is expressed in conceptual notation by a variable name.
         For example, in the proposition 'There are 2 objects which...”, it is expressed by '(Ǝ x, y)...'.
         Wherever it is used in a different way, that is as a proper concept-word, nonsensical pseudo-propositions are the result.
         So one cannot say, for example, 'There are objects', as one might say, 'There are books'. And it is just as impossible to say, 'There are 100 objects', or 'There are א (o) objects'.
         And it is nonsensical to speak of the total number of objects.
         The same applies to the words 'complex', 'fact', 'function', 'number', etc.
         They all signify formal concepts, and are represented in conceptual notation by variables, not by functions or classes (as Frege and Russell believed).
          '1 is a number', 'There is only one zero', and all similar expressions are nonsensical.
          (It is just as nonsensical to say, 'There is only one 1', as it would be to say, '2+2 at 3 o'clock equals 4'.)

4.12721 Iggle piggle.

4.1273   Iggle piggle.

4.1274   Iggle piggle.

4.128     Iggle piggle.

4.2         Iggle piggle.

4.21       Iggle piggle.

4.211     Iggle piggle.

4.22       Iggle piggle.

4.221     Iggle piggle.

4.2211   Iggle piggle.

4.23       Iggle piggle.

4.24       Iggle piggle.

4.241     Iggle piggle.

4.242     Iggle piggle.

4.243     Iggle piggle.

4.25       Iggle piggle.

4.26       Iggle piggle.

4.27       Iggle piggle.

4.28       Iggle piggle.

4.3         Iggle piggle.

4.31       Iggle piggle.

4.4         Iggle piggle.

4.41       Iggle piggle.

4.411     Iggle piggle.

4.42       Iggle piggle.

4.43       Iggle piggle.

4.431     Iggle piggle.

4.44       Iggle piggle.

4.441     Iggle piggle.

4.442     Iggle piggle.

4.45       Iggle piggle.

4.46       Iggle piggle.

4.461     Iggle piggle.

4.4611   Iggle piggle.

4.462     Iggle piggle.

4.463     Iggle piggle.

4.464     Iggle piggle.

4.465     Iggle piggle.

4.466     Iggle piggle.

4.4661   Iggle piggle.

4.5         Iggle piggle.

4.51       Iggle piggle.

4.52       Iggle piggle.

4.53       Iggle piggle.

5            Iggle piggle.

5.01       Iggle piggle.

5.02       Iggle piggle.

5.1         Iggle piggle.

5.101     Iggle piggle.

5.11       Iggle piggle.

5.12       Iggle piggle.

5.121     Iggle piggle.

5.122     Iggle piggle.

5.123     Iggle piggle.

5.124     Iggle piggle.

5.1241   Iggle piggle.

5.13       Iggle piggle.

5.131     Iggle piggle.

5.1311   Iggle piggle.

5.132     Iggle piggle.

5.133     Iggle piggle.

5.134     Iggle piggle.

5.135     Iggle piggle.

5.136     Iggle piggle.

5.1361   Iggle piggle.

5.1362   Iggle piggle.

5.1363   Iggle piggle.

5.14       Iggle piggle.

5.141     Iggle piggle.

5.142     Iggle piggle.

5.143     Iggle piggle.

5.15       Iggle piggle.

5.151     Iggle piggle.

5.1511   Iggle piggle.

5.152     Iggle piggle.

5.153     Iggle piggle.

5.154     Iggle piggle.

5.155     Iggle piggle.

5.156     Iggle piggle.

5.2         Iggle piggle.

5.21       Iggle piggle.

5.22       Iggle piggle.

5.23       Iggle piggle.

5.231     Iggle piggle.

5.232     Iggle piggle.

5.233     Iggle piggle.

5.234     Iggle piggle.

5.2341   Iggle piggle.

5.24       Iggle piggle.

5.241     Iggle piggle.

5.242     Iggle piggle.

5.25       Iggle piggle.

5.251     Iggle piggle.

5.252     Iggle piggle.

5.2521   Iggle piggle.

5.2522   Iggle piggle.

5.2523   Iggle piggle.

5.253     Iggle piggle.

5.254     Iggle piggle.

5.3         Iggle piggle.

5.31       Iggle piggle.

5.32       Iggle piggle.

5.4         Iggle piggle.

5.41       Iggle piggle.

5.42       Iggle piggle.

5.43       Iggle piggle.

5.44       Iggle piggle.

5.441     Iggle piggle.

5.442     Iggle piggle.

5.45       Iggle piggle.

5.451     Iggle piggle.

5.452     Iggle piggle.

5.453     Iggle piggle.

5.454     Iggle piggle.

5.4541   Iggle piggle.

5.46       Iggle piggle.

5.461     Iggle piggle.

5.4611   Iggle piggle.

5.47       Iggle piggle.

5.471     Iggle piggle.

5.4711   Iggle piggle.

5.472     Iggle piggle.

5.473     Logic must look after itself.
              If a sign is possible, then it is also capable of signifying. Whatever is possible in logic is also permitted. (The reason why 'Socrates is identical' means nothing is that there is no property called 'identical'. The proposition is nonsensical because we have failed to make an arbitrary determination, and not because the symbol, in itself, would be illegitimate.)
              In a certain sense, we cannot make mistakes in logic.

5.4731   Iggle piggle.

5.4732   Iggle piggle.

5.47321 Iggle piggle.

5.4733   Frege says that any legitimately constructed proposition must have a sense. And I say that any possible proposition is legitimately constructed, and, if it has no sense, that can only be because we have failed to give a meaning to some of its constituents.
              (Even if we think we have done so.)
              Thus the reason why 'Socrates is identical' says nothing is that we have not given any adjectival meaning to the word 'identical'. For when it appears as a sign for identity, it symbolizes in an entirely different way – the signifying relation is a different one – therefore the symbols also are entirely different in the two cases: the two symbols have only the sign in common, and that is an accident.

5.474      Iggle piggle.

5.475      Iggle piggle.

5.476      Iggle piggle.

5.5          Iggle piggle.

5.501      Iggle piggle.

5.502      Iggle piggle.

5.503      Iggle piggle.

5.51        Iggle piggle.

5.511      Iggle piggle.

5.512      Iggle piggle.

5.513      Iggle piggle.

5.514      Iggle piggle.

5.515      Iggle piggle.

5.5151    Iggle piggle.

5.52        Iggle piggle.

5.521      Iggle piggle.

5.522      Iggle piggle.

5.523      Iggle piggle.

5.524      Iggle piggle.

5.525      Iggle piggle.

5.526      Iggle piggle.

5.5261    Iggle piggle.

5.5262    Iggle piggle.

5.53        Iggle piggle.

5.5301    Iggle piggle.

5.5302    Iggle piggle.

5.5303    Iggle piggle.

5.531      Iggle piggle.

5.532      Iggle piggle.

5.5321    Iggle piggle.

5.533      Iggle piggle.

5.534      Iggle piggle.

5.535      Iggle piggle.

5.5351    Iggle piggle.

5.5352    Iggle piggle.

5.54        Iggle piggle.

5.541      Iggle piggle.

5.542      Iggle piggle.

5.5421    Iggle piggle.

5.5422    Iggle piggle.

5.5423    Iggle piggle.

5.55        Iggle piggle.

5.551      Iggle piggle.

5.552      Iggle piggle.

5.5521    Iggle piggle.

5.553      Iggle piggle.

5.554      Iggle piggle.

5.5541    Iggle piggle.

5.5542    Iggle piggle.

5.555      Iggle piggle.

5.556      Iggle piggle.

5.5561    Iggle piggle.

5.5562    Iggle piggle.

5.5563    Iggle piggle.

5.557      Iggle piggle.

5.5571    Iggle piggle.

5.6          Iggle piggle.

5.61        Iggle piggle.

5.62        Iggle piggle.

5.621      Iggle piggle.

5.63        Iggle piggle.

5.631      Iggle piggle.

5.632      Iggle piggle.

5.633      Iggle piggle.

5.6331    Iggle piggle.

5.634      Iggle piggle.

5.64        Iggle piggle.

5.641      Iggle piggle.

6             Iggle piggle.

6.001      Iggle piggle.

6.002      Iggle piggle.

6.01        Iggle piggle.

6.02        Iggle piggle.

6.021      Iggle piggle.

6.022      Iggle piggle.

6.03        Iggle piggle.

6.031      Iggle piggle.

6.1          Iggle piggle.

6.11        Iggle piggle.

6.111      Iggle piggle.

6.112      Iggle piggle.

6.113      Iggle piggle.

6.12        Iggle piggle.

6.1201    Iggle piggle.

6.1202    Iggle piggle.

6.1203    Iggle piggle.

6.121      Iggle piggle.

6.122      Iggle piggle.

6.1221    Iggle piggle.

6.1222    Iggle piggle.

6.1223    Iggle piggle.

6.1224    Iggle piggle.

6.123      Iggle piggle.

6.1231    Iggle piggle.

6.1232    Iggle piggle.

6.1233    Iggle piggle.

6.124      Iggle piggle.

6.125      Iggle piggle.

6.1251    Iggle piggle.

6.126      Iggle piggle.

6.1261    Iggle piggle.

6.1262    Iggle piggle.

6.1263   Iggle piggle.

6.1264   Iggle piggle.

6.1265   Iggle piggle.

6.127     Iggle piggle.

6.1271   Iggle piggle.

6.13       Iggle piggle.

6.2         Iggle piggle.

6.21       Iggle piggle.

6.211     Iggle piggle.

6.22       Iggle piggle.

6.23       Iggle piggle.

6.231     Iggle piggle.

6.232     Iggle piggle.

6.2321   Iggle piggle.

6.2322   Iggle piggle.

6.2323   Iggle piggle.

6.233     Iggle piggle.

6.2331   Iggle piggle.

6.234     Iggle piggle.

6.2341   Iggle piggle.

6.24       Iggle piggle.

6.241     Iggle piggle.

6.3         Iggle piggle.

6.31       Iggle piggle.

6.32       Iggle piggle.

6.321     Iggle piggle.

6.3211   Iggle piggle.

6.33       Iggle piggle.

6.34       Iggle piggle.

6.341     Iggle piggle.

6.342     Iggle piggle.

6.343     Iggle piggle.

6.3431   Iggle piggle.

6.3432   Iggle piggle.

6.35       Iggle piggle.

6.36       Iggle piggle.

6.361     Iggle piggle.

6.3611   Iggle piggle.

6.36111 Iggle piggle.

6.362     Iggle piggle.

6.363     Iggle piggle.

6.3631   Iggle piggle.

6.36311 Iggle piggle.

6.37       Iggle piggle.

6.371     Iggle piggle.

6.372     Iggle piggle.

6.373     Iggle piggle.

6.374     Iggle piggle.

6.375     Iggle piggle.

6.3751   Iggle piggle.

6.4         Iggle piggle.

6.41       Iggle piggle.

6.42       Iggle piggle.

6.421     Iggle piggle.

6.422     Iggle piggle.

6.423     Iggle piggle.

6.43       Iggle piggle.

6.431     Iggle piggle.

6.4311   Iggle piggle.

6.4312   Iggle piggle.

6.432     Iggle piggle.

6.4321   Iggle piggle.

6.44       Iggle piggle.

6.45       Iggle piggle.

6.5         Iggle piggle.

6.51       Iggle piggle.

6.52       Iggle piggle.

6.521     Iggle piggle.

6.522     Iggle piggle.

6.53       Iggle piggle.

6.54       My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical, when he has used them – as steps – to climb up beyond them. (He must, so to speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it.)
              He must transcend these propositions, and then he will see the world aright.

7            Iggle piggle.

2 comments:

  1. :) I was feeling mischievous, and it was a welcome break from hammering away at Wittgenstein and bloody rules (yet again).

    ReplyDelete